Most of the canes are late 20th or 21st century Murano. The checkerboard canes look like the ones made by KATHRIN KNEIDL and sold by her on etsy, and the smiley face canes are modern Chinese. I have bought the smiley face stuff myself from China. Looks like someone mixed up a bunch of 104COE canes and made a nice cabochon. Might even have been made by Kathryn herself.